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Smart Cities

Terry Jeffcoat



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Terry Jeffcoat

Columbia Southern University


Smart Cities

They are cities that utilizes technology to offer services and solves problems. It enhances transportation and accessibility, hence saving time.

Promote sustainability. Enhances social services.

(Cohen, 2012)

A smart city refers to an urban area that utilizes various types of sensors and electronic methods to gather information. The information collected is utilized in managing resources, assets, enhancing city operations band services effectively and efficiently (Cohen, 2012). . Currently, most cities have advanced their infrastructure using data analytics and sensing in order to manage their urban assets appropriately. The main aim of advancing cities into smart cities is to enhance people’s quality of life by adopting technology that leads to smart results and enabling

local area development


Aim of Smart Cities

To enable better decision making. To enhance residents and visitors quality of life. To improve economic competitiveness. To increase efficien-

cy and flexibility of services.

The focus of any smart city should be its people, providing benefits such as: A better quality of life for residents and visitors

Economic competitiveness to attract industry and talent

An environmentally conscious focus on sustainability

These three goals—quality of life, economic competitiveness, and sustainability—can provide the foundation for a smart city initiative.


The four major Components of Smart Cities (Colin, & Ian, 2011)

Smart cities have four major components which drive all their major functions. These components include: – Connectivity: smart cities use sensors like cameras and motion detection devices to gather information about current events. All of this data is connected to one anoth-

er, forming an information nexus

Intelligence: smart cities are intelligent because they have the ability to obtain and utilize knowledge and information. Responsiveness:

A smart city may respond to this the information in a variety of ways, all towards making everything more efficient

Sustainability: Of course, one of the major goals is to create a system where resources are used conservatively, and preserved, while creat-

ing a sustainable system of operations. (Colin, & Ian, 2011).






Drawbacks of Smart City

Along with multiple benefits, smart cities can introduce several issues such as invasion of privacy, power consumption, and poor data se- curity. Such issues may have drastic repercussions on public welfare and negatively affect citizens’ trust in the system. Governments and

smart city planners must develop an effective approach to address the concerns associated with smart cities.






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Invasion of privacy.

Increased power consumption.

Poor data security.

Lack of technology related skills.

Data bias

Insufficient resources.

What Makes a Smart City Successful

Open data

Flexible monetization schemes

Pervasive wireless connectivity

Trusted security

Effective leadership

Dedicated team

In addition to people, dwellings, commerce, and traditional urban infrastructure, there are four essential elements necessary for thriving smart cities: pervasive wireless connectivity, open data, security you can trust in, and flexible monetization schemes. Additionally, effective leadership that provides accountability and direction can make a smart city successful. Leadership comes from civil servants, residents, and

supplier ecosystem. Dedicated team is also an attribute that makes a smart city successful.


How e-government is used to improve smart cities. To deliver government services to the people appropriately.

To enhance interactions with industry and business.

To enhance access to information so as to empower citizens.

To improve efficiency and effectiveness of government management

(Kumar, 2015)


How e-government is used to improve smart cities. To keep government records for life events. To improve transparency. To lower the cost of

daily operations To enhance e-participation between urban authorities and citizens. To enhance the growth of revenue.

(Kumar, 2015)

One way that some Smart Cities are trying to put technology to use to engage their citizens is through eGovernment initiatives, which serve to enhance public sector efficiency and streamline government systems to support sustainable development (Kumar,2015). eGovern- ment uses online, one-step gateways for citizens to access major government services quickly and easily. An example would be a local govern- ment keeping records of life events – births, marriages, deaths – in the cloud, rather than in paper files, for easy access for both government officials and employees. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, im- proved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government manage-

ment. The resulting benefits are less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.



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How e-commerce is used to improve smart cities.

To shape the urban economies by facilitating business logistics. To boost efficiency of managing payments. To increase business sustainability

To enhance better understanding of demographic so as to offer succinct services.


How e-commerce is used to improve smart cities.

To improve customer networking without direct interactions. Enhancing connectivity and customer touch points and marketing focus. To better

marketing and customer shopping experience.

Businesses will be able to leverage the data being collected by the smart city to better understand their target demographic and space itself to provide a more succinct service. This means a sustainable approach to issues such as disposing of waste responsibly, a heightened concern to

conserve energy and focusing on the ethical treatment of employees and those in the supply chain.


How e-learning is used to improve smart cities. To strengthen basic education To improve smart education to generation of digital initiatives. To

enhance close monitoring of what is happening in the smart cities by city authorities.

How e-learning is used to improve smart cities. To advance training and certification. To boost effective dissemination of information to citizens

through access of e-learning platforms and resources. To promote use of intelligent agent system to educate smart city residents.

(Klett & Wang, 2014)

Smart education is a key ingredient in smart city development. Strengths in basic education, advanced training and certification, universities and community colleges, e-learning infrastructure, lifelong learning and innovation in education technologies are all part of what defines a smart city (Klett & Wang, 2014). Information systems enable city authorities to interact directly with citizens to monitor what is happening in a city, how the city evolves, and how to get a higher quality of life. Using sensors in real-time, data is collected from residents and devices, and then data is processed and analyzed. Acquired knowledge is crucial for effective solving problems, and supports wider consideration of the

needs of residents.


Smart city solutions

Nine utilities that is one smart grid platform.

Utilizing sensors to ensure cost-efficient waste handling.

Use of data driven traffic control to promote air quality.

Combination of multiple data sources in automatic leakage control.

Smart city solutions


(Rosenberg, 2006)

As the amount of available data increases and can be generated in real-time, it can be used for much more than billing costumers. Together with a number of waste solution sensors and system suppliers, the Municipality of Albertslund is testing different waste solutions in a living en- vironment. Combining multiple data sources in automatic leakage management enables leakage teams to target the weakest pipeline seg- ments with the goal of reducing Non-Revenue water levels to 4-6 percent (Rosenberg, 2006). In the EU, buildings account for 40 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. Denmark Is already reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the utilities sector, and therefore energy efficiency in buildings is central to achieving further reductions. This was the first step in their efforts to optimise their city heating system, which has to

supply more and more buildings and support a carbon-neutral and energy-efficient future.





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Improving on full energy savings in smart cities.

Digitalizing of smart cities

Improving on water treatment

Enhancing energy generation

Promoting resource recovery.

Smart technology

Conclusion The concept of smart city has gained a lot of attention recently. Smart city technologies and innovations have been used to improve

operations and offer solutions. Smart city has utilized technologies to save funds, reduce pollution and control traffic snarl-ups.


References Cohen, B., (2012). What Exactly is a Smart City? In Co.Exist, Available at 1680538/what-exactly- is- asmart-city (accessed 27 February 2014). Colin, H. & Ian, A.D. (2011). A theory of smart cities. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSSS-2011, Hull, UK. Klett, F., & Wang, M. (2014). Editorial: Smart cities of the future: Creating tomorrow’s education toward effective

skills and career development today. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 6(4), 344– 355. 10.


References Kumar, T.M.V. (2015). E-Governance for Smart Cities. Springer ISSN 2198-2546, ISSN 2198-2554 (electronic) Rosenberg M.J. (2006). Beyond E-Learning: Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge Learning and Performance. Wiley Publica-




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Student paper

Columbia Southern University

Original source

Columbia Southern University


Student paper

A smart city refers to an urban area that utilizes various types of sensors and electronic methods to gather information. The information collected is uti- lized in managing resources, assets, enhancing city operations band services effectively and efficiently (Cohen, 2012).

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