NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question

NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question

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NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question

P——Young adults ages 18 and older Marijuana smoking
I ——- Smoking cessation.
C—— Marijuana replacing nicotine
O—–Counseling to reduce risk
T ——Reduce risk factors associated with smoking now

In nursing practice, accurate identification and application of research is essential to achieving successful outcomes. Being able to articulate the information and successfully summarize relevant peer-reviewed articles in a scholarly fashion helps to support the student\’s ability and confidence to further develop and synthesize the progressively more complex assignments that constitute the components of the course change proposal capstone project.

For this NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question assignment, the student will provide a synopsis of eight peer-reviewed articles from nursing journals using an evaluation table that determines the level and strength of evidence for each of the eight articles. The articles should be current within the last 5 years and closely relate to the PICOT statement developed earlier in this course. The articles may include quantitative research, descriptive analyses, longitudinal studies, or meta-analysis articles. A systematic review may be used to provide background information for the purpose or problem identified in the proposed capstone project. Use the \”Literature Evaluation Table\” resource to complete this assignment. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Literature Evaluation Table

Literature Evaluation Table Rubric

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Literature Evaluation Table Rubric

  1
Unsatisfactory 0-71%
0.00%
2
Less Than Satisfactory 72-75%
75.00%
3
Satisfactory 76-79%
79.00%
4
Good 80-89%
89.00%
5
Excellent 90-100%
100.00%
100.0 %Article Selection
5.0 % Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and Permalink or Working Link to Access Article Author, journal (peer-reviewed), and permalink or working link to access article section is not included. Author, journal (peer-reviewed), and permalink or working link to access article section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Author, journal (peer-reviewed), and permalink or working link to access article section is present. Author, journal (peer-reviewed), and permalink or working link to access article section is clearly provided and well developed. Author, journal (peer-reviewed), and permalink or working link to access article section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
5.0 % Article Title and Year Published Article title and year published section is not included. Article title and year published section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Article title and year published section is present. Article title and year published section is clearly provided and well developed. Article title and year published section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Research Questions (Qualitative) or Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes or Aim of Study Research questions (qualitative) or hypothesis (quantitative), and purposes or aim of study section is not included. Research questions (qualitative) or hypothesis (quantitative), and purposes or aim of study section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Research questions (qualitative) or hypothesis (quantitative), and purposes or aim of study section is present. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Research questions (qualitative) or hypothesis (quantitative), and purposes or aim of study section is clearly provided and well developed. Research questions (qualitative) or hypothesis (quantitative), and purposes or aim of study section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
5.0 % Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Design (type of quantitative, or type of qualitative) section is not included. Design (type of quantitative, or type of qualitative) section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Design (type of quantitative, or type of qualitative) section is present. Design (type of quantitative, or type of qualitative) section is clearly provided and well developed. Design (type of quantitative, or type of qualitative) section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
5.0 % Setting or Sample Setting or sample section is not included. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Setting or sample section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Setting or sample section is present. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Setting or sample section is clearly provided and well developed. Setting or sample section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
5.0 % Methods: Intervention or Instruments Methods: Intervention or instruments section is not included. Methods: Intervention or instruments section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Methods: Intervention or instruments section is present. Methods: Intervention or instruments section is clearly provided and well developed. Methods: Intervention or instruments section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Analysis Analysis section is not included. Analysis section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Analysis section is present. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Analysis section is clearly provided and well developed. Analysis section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Key Findings Key findings section is not included. Key findings section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Key findings section is present. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Key findings section is clearly provided and well developed. Key findings section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Recommendations Recommendations section is not included. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Recommendations section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Recommendations section is present. Recommendations section is clearly provided and well developed. Recommendations section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP or Capstone Explanation of how the article supports EBP or capstone section is not included. Explanation of how the article supports EBP or capstone section is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete. Explanation of how the article supports EBP or capstone section is present. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Explanation of how the article supports EBP or capstone section is clearly provided and well developed. Explanation of how the article supports EBP or capstone section is comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.
10.0 % Presentation The piece is not neat or organized, and it does not include all required elements. The work is not neat and includes minor flaws or omissions of required elements. The overall appearance is general, and major elements are missing. The overall appearance is generally neat, with a few minor flaws or missing elements. The work is well presented and includes all required elements. The overall appearance is neat and professional.
10.0 % Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use) Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is employed. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question
5.0 % Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) Sources are not documented. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
100 % Total Weightage NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question

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Literature Evaluation Table

Student Name:

PICOT Question: In cigarette smokers older than 17 years (P), does nicotine replacement therapy (I), versus using other smoking cessation therapies (C), affect smoking cessation outcomes (O) over a period of three months (T)?

Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Buller, D., Halperin, A., Severson, H., Borland, R., Slater, M., Bettinghaus, E., Tinkelman, D., Cutter, G. & Woodall, G. 

J Public Health Manag Pract., 20(2), E7-E15

doi:  10.1097/PHH.0b013e3182a0b8c7

(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3966563/)

Metrik, J., Spillane, N., Leventhal, A. & Kahler, G. 

Drug Alcohol Depend., 119(3), 194-200

doi:  10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.06.004

(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199036/)

Rath, J., Villanti, A., Abrams, D. & Vallone, D. 

Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 679134

doi: 10.1155/2012/679134

(https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2012/679134/citations/)

Thurgood, S., McNeill, A., Clark-Carter, D. & Brose, L. 

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(5), 993-1001.

doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv127 (https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article/18/5/993/2510055)

Article Title and Year Published Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services. 

2014

Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers. 

2011

Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation. 

2012

A Systematic Review of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment or Recovery 

2015

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study Research question (implied): How useful and effective is nicotine patch in smoking cessation interventions? 

Aim of the study: Use and effectiveness of nicotine patch was explored in a randomized trial evaluating smoking cessation interventions with this population.

Research question (implied): How does marijuana use affect nicotine smoking cessation efforts for alcohol drinkers? 

NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question. Aim of the study: To determine whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking among alcohol drinkers.

Research question (implied): What is the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco products, and dual use in a USA nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34. 

Aim of the study: To determine nicotine use prevalence among young adults in the USA

Research questions: (1) what is the effectiveness of different smoking cessation interventions for patients with substance use disorders? 

(2) what is the impact of smoking cessation treatment on substance use outcomes?

Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with substance use disorders.

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Quantitative design that included a pretest and posttest trial with the participants randomized. Quantitative design that applied a randomized control trial Quantitative study using online panel data Qualitative study that relied on literature review of peer-reviewed publications
Setting/Sample Sample comprised of 3,094 smokers aged 18-30 Sample comprised 236 heavy drinkers of which 57 currently smoked marijuana Sample comprised 4,201 young adults aged between 18 and 34 Randomized controlled trails published between 1990 and 2014
Methods: Intervention/Instruments 

 

The intervention entails subjecting the treatment group to a two-week nicotine replacement therapy. The intervention entailed using marijuana as a substitute for tobacco smoking and alcohol use. The instrument entailed collecting information on whether the participants used nicotine products The instrument entailed reviewed databases, grey literature, reference lists, and journals
Analysis 

 

Compared the performance of nicotine replacement therapy against other cessation strategies such as medication and counselling. Comparing tobacco smoking and alcohol use between marijuana smokers and non-marijuana smokers. Report the sample proportion that used nicotine products against the proportion that did not use nicotine to determine prevalence. Assessed emerging themes from the peer review.
Key Findings 

 

Greater nicotine replacement therapy use among those who received training than those who did not receive training (12-weeks: 84.3% v. 41.9%, p<.001; 26-weeks: 87.6% v. 51.1%, p<.001). Marijuana smokers reduced drinking by 47% over an 8-week period, to be followed by 24% reduction in tobacco smoking over the next 18 weeks. 23% of the participants used nicotine of which 30% reported dual use Nicotine patches, nicotine gum, counselling, contingency management, relapse prevention, cognitive behavioral therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, and bupropion are effective strategies for ensuring smoking abstinence and cessation.
Recommendations 

 

Nicotine replacement therapy should be availed to young adults who seek to cease smoking. Marijuana smoking presents a viable substitute for tobacco smoking and alcohol use. There is a need to monitor and implement smoking cessation efforts for young adults in the USA The discussed strategies should be extensively applied in smoking abstinence and cessation programs.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project The article supports the present project by providing tangible evidence to show that smoking cessation can be achieved by applying replacement therapy. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question The article supports the present project be presenting evidence to support the use of marijuana as tobacco substitute. The article supports the current project by highlighting the need to addressing smoking as a problem among young adults. The article supports the current project by indicating that nicotine replacement therapy is effective for smoking cessation programs.

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Criteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Secades-Villa, R., Florez-Salamanca, L.m Okuda, M., Liu, S. & Blanco, C. 

Drug Alcohol Depend., 132(3), 479-485

doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.008

(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723776/)

Chen, J., Nguyen, A., Malesker, M. & Morrow, L. 

Respiratory Care, 61(5), 640-645.

doi: 10.4187/respcare.04439

Hakim, S., Chowdhury, M. & Uddin, J. 

Preventive Medicine Reports, 8, 122-128.

doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.08.007

(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221133551730133X)

Diemert, L., Bondy, S., Brown, S. & Manske, S. 

American Journal of Public Health, 103(3), 449-453.

doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300878

Article Title and Year Published Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services. 

2014

High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals. 

2016

Correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh. 

2017

Young Adult Smoking Cessation: Predictors of Quit Attempts and Abstinence. 

2013

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study Research question (implied): What are the estimated relapse rates and predictors to smoking? 

Aim of the study: to estimate rates of relapse to smoking in the community and to identify predictors of relapse.

Research question (implied): What are the high-risk smoking behaviors and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals? NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question 

Aim of the study: to present data regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals.

Research question (implied): What are the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh? 

Aim of the study: to identify the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh.

Research question (implied): What are the predictors of young adults smoking cessation behavior? 

Aim of the study: to determine if young adults smokers require effective and appropriate cessation resources.

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Quantitative design that relied on secondary data Quantitative design that relied on surveys Quantitative design that relied on secondary from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for Bangladesh. Quantitative design that relied on data from Ontario Tobacco Survey.
Setting/Sample Data was collected from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter 1552 smokers who are older than 14 years of age. 592 young adult smokers
Methods: Intervention/Instruments Information on smoking relapse and predictors Presenting opinions on the research topic Information on successful and unsuccessful smoking quitters Information on smoking quit attempts
Analysis Reported relapse and predictor statistics Present recurring themes Statistics on successful and unsuccessful smoking quitters among the participants Statistics on factors that influence smoking quit attempts
Key Findings Risk of relapse exceeded 50% within 1 year but dropped to 10% over the next 30 years. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question 90% of the participants engaged in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Best smoking cessation aid was nicotine replacement therapy. Barriers to smoking cessation included excessive stress and anxiety. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question Of the 1552 smokers, 1058 unsuccessfully quit while 494 successfully quit 25% of young adult smokers attempt cessation, and 14% are successful for the first 30 days.
Recommendations Attention on persons who quit over the last year since they are at highest risk of relapse, although it should be noted that the risk is not eliminated over time. There is a need to address excessive stress and anxiety as barriers to cessation even as nicotine replacement therapy is applied as the best strategy among homeless individuals. Cessation programs require an integrated approach to improve successful outcomes Cessation is predicted by resources, prior attempts and intention. 

Abstinence is predicted by self-efficacy, resources, support, and level of addiction.

 

Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone The article supports the project by showing that smoking cessation is a continuous process and the risk of relapse only decreases over time and is not fully eliminated. NRS 490 – Literature Evaluation Table & PICOT Question The article supports the project by showing that nicotine replacement therapy is an effective strategy for smoking cessation. The article supports the current project by showing that cessation approaches are influenced by demographic factors such that what works for one group does not necessarily work for another group. As such, it would not be right to assume that nicotine replacement therapy would work for the population of interest since it works for other age groups.

Literature Evaluation Table

Student Name: Samantha Howard

Change Topic (2-3 sentences): The implementation of medical marijuana and non-medical marijuana in cancer patient for alleviation of pain within one year of treatment

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Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Vyas M.B, LeBaron V.T, Gilson A.M.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28993073

J Clin Oncol

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29746226

J Clin Oncol

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30205775

Zaki,Pearl., Blake,Alexia, Wolt, Amiti, Chan, Stephanie

 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324088950_The_Use_of_medical_cannabis_in_cancer_patients

Article Title and Year Published

 

The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature. 2018 Medical Oncologists’ Beliefs, Practices, and Knowledge Regarding Marijuana Used Therapeutically: A Nationally Representative Survey Study. 2018 Medical Marijuana Use in a Community Cancer Center. 2018 The use of medical cannabis in cancer patients. 2017
Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study The purpose of the article is to examine state medical cannabis (MC) use laws and policies and their potential association with POM use and related harms. To determine whether oncologists reported discussing MM with patients, recommended MM clinically in the past year, or felt sufficiently informed to make such recommendations. Compare the incidence of marijuana use between patients with early- versus advanced-stage cancers. Examine differences in adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions between those who use marijuana and those who do not. To examine the efficacy of cannabis treatment among cancer patients to manage symptoms from a single Canadian medical cannabis provider
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Quantitative: Exploratory study

 

A systematic literature review was conducted to explore United States policies related to MC use and the association with POM use and related harms. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2010 and 2017

Quantitative Study

Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using standard statistical techniques.

Quantitative Study

 

The overall incidence of marijuana use was 18.3% (32 of 175 patients). The incidence of marijuana uses in patients with early- versus advanced-stage cancers was 19.6% (11 of 56 patients) versus 17.6% (21 of 119 patients; P = .75).

Quantitative Study

 

164 patients reported a current or previous diagnosis of cancer, of which the most common types

of primary tumors were gastrointestinal (17.7%, n = 29),

breast (13.4%, n = 22), leukemia and lymphoma (13.4%, n = 22), gynecologic (9.2%, n = 15), prostate (7.3%, n = 12), and lung (7.3%, n = 12).

Setting/Sample

 

A systematic literature review 11,513 records were identified, with 789 abstracts reviewed, and then 134 full-text articles screened for eligibility via Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2010 and 2017. A survey on random sample of 400 medical oncologists. Electronic self-reported questionnaire completed by patients age 18 years and older who were receiving chemotherapy. 164 cancer patients
Methods: Intervention/Instruments A systematic literature review on EBP peer- article to support the use of MM verse opioid use Randomize survey on oncologist. Questionnaire Online survey of 2573 patients, use of Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire
Analysis

 

A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: Analysis of responses of oncologist on the use of MM in pain in patient Analysis of data indicating the implications of cannabis treatment on cancer patients. Analysis of data collected from survey from periods of between 4 to 10 months from initial use of cannabis by cancer patients
Key Findings

 

Of 134 articles, 10 articles met inclusion criteria. The literature suggests MC laws could be associated with decreased POM use, fewer POM-related hospitalizations, lower rates of opioid overdose, and reduced national health care expenditures related to POM overdose and misuse. Overall response 63%. 30% of oncologists felt sufficiently informed to make recommendations, 80% discussions with patients, 46% recommended for clinical use. 67% viewed it as a helpful adjunct to standard pain management strategies, and 65% thought MM is equally or more effective than standard treatments for anorexia and cachexia The overall incidence of marijuana use was 18.3% (32 of 175 patients). early- versus advanced-stage cancers was 19.6% (11 of 56 patients) versus 17.6% (21 of 119 patients; P = .75) 164 patients indicated current or prior cancer diagnosis and 56.3 percent previously used cannabis for symptom relief while 73.6 percent reported current use
Recommendations

 

Review of the current literature suggests states that implement MC policies could reduce POM-associated mortality, improve pain management, and significantly reduce health care costs More research is needed regarding critical gaps in research, medical education, and policy regarding MM. The risks versus benefits should be discussed with all patients who use marijuana. Need for more studies to establish the efficacy of medical cannabis as compared to first line therapies among cancer patients
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project

 

Having knowledge that MM use reduces the number of overdoses seen with other pain management suppose the cause for the use of cannabis in cancer patient for pain relief. This article provided EBP date that provided oncologist thoughts on the use of MM patient dealing with cancer This article provided information that was relevant towards my EBP as it relates to drug interactions, benefits and limitation of MM This article provided information on the outcome of a year along use of cannabis used among cancer patients

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Criteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

 

Abrams, D.I.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791148/

Johnson JR; Lossignol D; Burnell-Nugent M; Fallon MT

https://reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/23141881

Jessica. C, Paul. J, D

 

http://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/jco.2015.33.29_suppl.198

Alexia B, Bo A, W, Leila. M, C, DeAngelis, Patrick D, Nicholas L, Edward C, O’Hearn. S

 

http://apm.amegroups.com/article/view/16199/18209

Article Title and Year Published

 

Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care, 2016 An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oro-mucosal spray and oro-mucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics. 2013 Use of medical cannabis to reduce pain and improve quality of life in cancer patients. 2017 A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management. 2017
Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study The purpose of the article is show Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care The purpose of the study was investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD spray and THC spray in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. The purpose of the study is to determine if the addition of cannabinoids (medical cannabis) resulted in the reduction of the average opioid dose required for pain control and improve self-reported quality of life indices. To evaluate the efficacy of cannabinoid-based therapies containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for reducing cancer-associated pain
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Qualitative study Exploratory study Quantitative Study A review of literature: Quantitative Study

A variety of doses ranging from 2.7–43.2 mg/day THC and 0–40 mg/day CBD were administered. Higher doses of THC were correlated with increased pain relief in some studies. One study found that significant pain relief was achieved in doses as low as 2.7–10.8 mg THC in combination with 2.5–10.0 mg CBD, but there was conflicting evidence on whether higher doses provide superior pain relief.

Setting/Sample

 

28 studies of 2454 participants 43 patients with cancer-related pain (n = 24). Patient 18 and older Five studies that evaluated THC oil capsules, THC: CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols), or THC oromucosal sprays found some evidence of cancer pain reduction associated with these therapies.
Methods: Intervention/Instruments

 

Study of randomized clinical trials of participants Randomized controlled trial of 43 patients A retrospective chart review of cancer patients followed in our CCMB Pain and Symptom Clinic was conducted. Small pilot studies conducted in 1975, to double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted in 2014
Analysis

 

Analysis of data indicating the implications of cannabis treatment on cancer patients in several clinical trials Analysis of data available to support use of cannabis for cancer treatment Review of cancer patients followed in our CCMB Pain and Symptom Clinic was conducted Reviews the history of marijuana for relief and therapy treatment of cancer patients
Key Findings

 

Cannabis has certain benefits particularly handling symptoms, and direct anticancer effects of cannabinoids No new safety concerns associated with the extended use of THC/CBD spray arose from this study. This study showed that the long-term use of THC/CBD spray was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for the relief of cancer-related pain with long-term use Patients with cancer pain benefited from the addition of cannabinoids Significant pain relief was achieved in doses as low as 2.7–10.8 mg THC in combination with 2.5–10.0 mg CBD, but there was conflicting evidence on whether higher doses provide superior pain relief
Recommendations

 

Need for more human studies to manage current effects The outcome of the study was met. Further prospective controlled studies are needed to further elucidate the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer pain. There is a need for the conduct of further double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample sizes to establish the optimal dosage and efficacy of different cannabis-based therapies.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone

 

Discusses studies available indicating outcome of use of cannabis in cancer management that can be used to support my capstone project. Provides expert opinion on use of medical marijuana in cancer management

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