Health In The Global Community.

Health In The Global Community.

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Women’s health

Read chapters 15 and 17 (attached) PowerPoint presentations.  Once done, answer the following questions;

1.  Mention and discuss the World Health Organization’s concepts of “health for all” and primary health care.

2.  Describe the role of the community or public health nursing in international health.

3.  Identify and discuss the major indicators of women’s health.

4.  Mention and apply the nursing process to women’s health concerns across all levels of prevention.

INSTRUCTIONS:

Original papers (No plagiarism)

APA format , Arial 12 font.

A minimum of 2 evidence-based references besides the class textbook no older than 5 years. A minimum of 750 words is required.

Chapter 15

Health in the Global Community

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

 

Human health and its influence on every aspect of life are central to the global agenda.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Health in the Global Community

Population characteristics

Environmental factors

Patterns of health and disease

International agencies and organizations

International health care delivery systems

The CHN’s role in the global community

Research in international health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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International Community Assessment Model

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Courtesy J. C. Novak.

Population Characteristics

Large populations create pressures

Goal is to improve quality of life (QOL)

Health promotion

Effective health care delivery systems

Enhancement of the environmental infrastructure

World population distribution is uneven

More than 50% live in China, India, United States, and Indonesia; 30% are children; 8% are over 60

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Population Characteristics (Cont.)

Life expectancy varies significantly in different countries.

Japan 86 years, Zambia 43 years

As the world population grows, a global trend toward urbanization occurs.

Live closer together and migrate to urban areas for employment

Increased living density and global travel threatens health of general population by environmental factors

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Environmental Factors

Environmental stressors

Directly assault human health

Damage society’s goods and services

Affect quality of life (QOL)

Interfere with the ecological balance

Natural disasters, terrorism, and war affect all of the above

The field of environmental health and sustainable development has exploded since 1990.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Patterns of Health and Disease

Lifestyles, health and cultural beliefs, infrastructure, economics, and politics affect existing illnesses and society’s commitment to prevention.

Disease patterns vary throughout the world.

Racial, ethnic, and access disparities exist within and between countries.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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International Organizations

WHO (World Health Organization)

PAHO (Pan American Health Organization)

UN (United Nations)

UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Fund)

World Bank

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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“Health for All by the Year 2000” (WHO Goal, 1978)

Goal framed at the Alma-Ata conference in the Soviet Union in 1978; now extended to 2010 again without attainment

Concept of primary health care

Health as a fundamental human right for individuals, families, and communities

Unacceptability of the gross inequalities in health status

Importance of community involvement

Active role for all sectors

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000, 2006)

Target date of 2015

Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty

Achieve universal primary education

Promote gender equality, and empower women

Reduce child mortality

Improve maternal health

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other infectious diseases

Ensure environmental sustainability

Develop global partnerships

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Other Organizations Impacting International Health

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

Carter Center

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

ICN (International Council of Nurses)

HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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HHS and Healthy People

Serves as a foundation for efforts across the HHS to create a healthier nation

1979 Surgeon General’s Report, Healthy People: The Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Healthy People 1990: Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation

Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives

Healthy People 2010: Objectives for Improving Health

Healthy People 2020: Improving the Health of Americans

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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International Health Care Delivery Systems

Much to learn from one another.

Research and development must be relevant to infectious diseases that affect the poor.

Need to systematically generate an information base.

Need to consider determinants of health.

Use population-based approaches to address access, cost, efficiency, and effectiveness.

Collaborate to solve the problems of health care delivery systems.

Market- and population-based approaches need to learn from each other.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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International Health Care Delivery Systems (Cont.)

Effective health care delivery systems must:

Increase access and efficiency.

Improve health status through health promotion and disease prevention.

Eliminate health disparities.

Protect individuals, families, and communities from financial loss caused by catastrophic illness.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Role of the CHN in International Health Care

Seek to ensure the attainment of health for all in a cost-effective, efficient, accessible health care system.

Be involved in research, community assessment, planning, implementation, management, evaluation, health services delivery, emergency response, health policy, and legislation.

Coordinate work with other health care personnel and community leaders as well as local and global community leaders.

Utilize changes in the health environment to form the basis for the nursing role.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Role of the CHN in International Health Care (Cont.)

Primary health care

Essential services that support a healthy life.

Involves access, availability, service delivery, community participation, and the citizen’s right to health care.

Primary care

First line or point-of-access medical and nursing care controlled by providers and focused on the individual.

May not be the norm as needs of the group outweigh the needs of the individual.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Role of the CHN in International Health Care (Cont.)

All nurses in the world must understand and learn from one another. Nurses are health care’s most valuable assets.

Community public health nurses can improve access to care for the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups in any country.

The future demands evidence-based learning, engagement, service, and growth in information technology and local and global health policy.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Figure 15-2 Distinction Among Service Programs. Furco, Andrew. “Service-Learning: A Balanced Approach to Experiential Education.”  Expanding Boundaries: Service and Learning. Washington DC: Corporation for National Service, 1996. 2-6.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Population-based nursing experts are critical to solving the challenges of the fragmented, mismanaged, expensive, ineffective, inefficient health care delivery system that exists in many parts of the global community.

– Nies and McEwen (2015)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Research in International Health

Since 1990, international nursing research has focused predominantly on:

Student and faculty educational exchange programs

Diverse clinical experiences

The international development of home care or transition from hospital to home

WHO Collaborating Centers contributed to a partnership for educational programming, clinical practice, and research for graduate students in primary health care nursing and community health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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