ABA 15 Minute Power Point Presentation Regarding Chapter 6 “Bad Habits “

ABA 15 Minute Power Point Presentation Regarding Chapter 6 “Bad Habits “

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Presentation Requirements

  1. Presentation covered entire assigned chapter
  2. include a bried summary with key point regarding the entire chapter
  3. Power point  Slides Presentation needs to last 15 minutes
  4. Presenter provided at least 5 discussion prompts ( need to provide in writting in last slide 5 questions to start a discussion with class regarding the article. These questions is for me to ask the audience and create dialog.
  5. Find and cover one article in the internet on your related topic. sumarrize the article and quote it  This is the second part in the power point. it needs to be clearly labeled on the slides.

    136 Chapter 5



    Assessment and Treatment of Habit Disorders 137

    Chapter 6

    Assessment and Treatment of Habit Disorders

    Raymond G. Miltenberger North Dakota State University

    Douglas W. Woods University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

    Habit behaviors are repetitive or stereotyped responses that serve no apparent social function yet appear to be maintained by operant contingencies (Adesso, 1990; Hansen, Tishelman, Hawkins, & Doepke, 1990; Woods & Miltenberger, 1995). When such behaviors result in direct (i.e., physical damage) or indirect (i.e., poor social acceptability by others) harm to a person, they are considered habit disorders. Although habit disorders are thought to be maintained by automatic reinforcement in the form of self-stimulation or arousal reduction, they are typically defined topographically rather than functionally (Woods, Miltenberger, & Flach, 1996). Although many types of habit disorders can require treatment, in this chapter we only review the four that are likely to be encountered in a clinical setting: tic disorders, trichotillomania, thumb sucking, and nail biting.

    Definition, Description, and Prevalence

    Tic Disorders There are three types of tic behavior patterns. Motor tics are rapid, repetitive,

    and often jerking muscle movements that are not caused by spasms, chorea, or tremors (Woods & Miltenberger, 1995). Examples include excessive or forceful eye- blinking, facial grimacing, and arm or neck jerking. Research suggests that approxi- mately 1% of the population has a motor tic disorder (Ollendick, 1981). Vocal tics are “sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic vocalizations” (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p. 104; APA). Examples include barking sounds, coughing and throat clearing (unrelated to illness), snorting, and coprolalia (i.e., swearing; Woods & Miltenberger, 1995). The prevalence of vocal tics is unclear. However, Woods, Miltenberger, and Flach (1996) reported that as many as 6.5% of college students engage in throat clearing at least 5 times per day and identify it as a habit. Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is diagnosed when a person exhibits motor and vocal tics (APA). The prevalence of TS is approximately .04-.05% and is more common in males (APA).

    Individuals with tic disorders (especially TS) sometimes have concurrent problems such as obsessive-compulsive behaviors, attention deficit/hyperactive



    138 Chapter 6

    behavior, aggression management problems, and sleep problems. In some cases the tic itself causes physical damage such as cuts, burns, and bruises (Shimberg, 1995). Research has also demonstrated that adults who exhibit tics are viewed more negatively than those who do not (Woods, Long, Fuqua, Miltenberger, & Outman, 1998). These results extend to children (Friedrich, Morgan, & Devine, 1996) and developmentally disabled adults (Long, Woods, Miltenberger, Fuqua, & Boudjouk, in press). In addition, Long, Woods et al. demonstrated that individuals who exhibit tic behaviors are less likely to be hired for jobs than individuals who do not exhibit tics.

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